Anal cancer is a rare type of cancer that affects the anus. The anus is where your bowel connects to the outside of your body (the bottom). Anal cancer can start in any part of the anus. How serious anal cancer is depends on where it starts, how big it is, if it spreads and your general health. Causes of anal cancer remain unclear but research suggests a link between Human Papillomavirus (HPV), especially strain 16 and 18, and the anal cancer. Besides, other risk factors include age – commonly found in people over 50 years, smoking habit, history of having cervical and vaginal cancer, immune system disorders, having multiple sexual partners, anal sexual practice and unprotected sex.
Condomless sex together with other risk factors
A doctor will plan a treatment based on concerning factors such as stage and severity of cancer, patient’s response to treatment and current health conditions. Principle treatments are as follows:
- • Surgery is a treatment to remove the tumor cells and some other cells nearby. In general, this practice will be done during the early stage of cancer. Surgery techniques can be varied depending on patient’s conditions
- • Chemotherapy is a treatment where medicine is used to kill cancer cells. There are many different types of chemotherapy medicine, but they all work in a similar way. They stop cancer cells reproducing, which prevents them from growing and spreading in the body. Patients can have side effects from chemotherapy such as nausea, vomiting and hair fall.
- • Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells or slow their growth by damaging their DNA. For better result, it is often done with chemotherapy. It can cause the skin on the part of your body receiving radiation to become dry and peel, itch, and turn red or darker.
- • Avoid risk factors such as multiple sexual partners, unprotected sex, smoking etc.
- • Regular check-ups for anal cancer and HPV infection
An Anal Pap Smear is a screening method for oral and rectal cancer by collecting cells to check for abnormalities that may be signs of pre-cancerous lesions.
|2-strain vaccines (16, 18)||Not applicable||70% protection (strain 16, 18)||N/A|
|4-strain vaccines (6, 11, 16,18)||90% protection (strain 6, 11)||70% protection (strain 16, 18)||2,500 THB per dose|
|9-strain vaccines (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58)||90% protection (strain 6, 11)||80% protection (strain 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58)||6,000 THB per dose|
Eligible ages for vaccines
- • 9–26 years: recommended for women, men and transgender people.
- • 27-45 years: considered case by case
- • Less than 9 or over 45 years: not recommended
Number of injections
- • Less than 15 years, 2 injections at month 0 and 6-12
- • Over 15 years, 3 injections at month 0, 1-2 and 6
• For people with immune system disorders regardless of age, 3 injections at month 0, 1-2 and 6